sample size for qualitative research

In qualitative research the sample size adequacy based on the information saturation that you have got from the respondents. Why does sample size matter? Sample size calculation plays a critical role in meeting your entire research or business oriented goals. This short paper addresses the issue of which sample sizes are appropriate and valid within different approaches to qualitative research. ( Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). (2006) study is about code saturation (i.e., the point where no new codes appear) rather than theoretical saturation (i.e. I am currently working on a qualitative research and would like to ask your opinion. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232076, Morse, J. One of the characteristics here is that multiple sources are used, but is that a hard requirement? Qualitative analyses typically require a smaller sample size than quantitative analyses. Learn how your comment data is processed. Questioning Data Saturation as a Useful Concept for Thematic Analysis and Sample-size Rationales” (Braun & Clarke, 2019) and “The Changing Face of Qualitative Inquiry” (Morse, 2020). This paper only examines sample size considerations in quantitative research. You may get more information from these articles. The potential danger of relying on saturation to establish sample size in qualitative research is multifold. Which sampling method should I use? The first has to do with the importance of meaning1 and the idea that finding meaning requires the researcher to actively look for contextual understandings and to have good analytical skills. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health. How do I determine sample size? My second choice is of course to do a video-call, but I already now know, that several of the participators rather want to do it by e-mail, since they are working day and night to get through this crisis (the industry is under a lot of pressure now). Due to coronavirus, people in two hundred countries around the world are locked in their homes. Indeed, with qualitative research, the richness of the data is often more a factor of the the researcher's skill than the sample size. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406920909938, Morse, J. M. (2015). However, with the COVID-19 situation, I am not able to meet the participators face to face. What's sampling bias? Therefore, it would be better to be able to chat "live" in order to ask follow-up questions since it is a semi-structured interview. It is the implicit that is interesting.” (p. 148). One reason is that giving an accurate sample size prior to data collection can be difficult, particularly when the researcher expects the number to change as the result of in-the-field decisions. This is my first attempt to publish in a journal. I am not sure which qualitative method to use. ( Log Out /  I wonder what kind of qualitative method I should use. A list of new predatory publishers is available in the attached file. Any recommendations? Sample size dimension and sample size type: Probability depends on the kind of research. Is there any rule or popular practice? Guest, G., Namey, E., & Chen, M. (2020). ©1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Qualitative and quantitative research designs require the researcher to think carefully about how and how many to sample within the population segment(s) of interest related to the research objectives. For Braun and Clarke, “meaning is not inherent or self-evident in data” but rather “meaning requires interpretation” (p. 10). After a while there is a point of diminishing return when increasing the sample size no longer contributes to new evidence. Just over a third (34%) used samples between CRESWELL's suggested range of 20 and 30 (1998, p.128)while only 11 studies (or 22%) used s… Guidance – Sample Size for Qualitative Research ----- The purpose of qualitative research methods is to look for meaning (i.e. Qualitative Sample Size. After the description we ask about similar experiences followed by an in-depth interview. Nursing Inquiry, 1–2. In doing so, the researcher considers demographic and cultural diversity, as well as other distinguishing characteristics (e.g., usage of a particular service or product) and pragmatic issues (e.g., access and resources). If you're doing qualitative design research, don't worry about sample size. Researchers and reviewers may find the discussion in this paper to be a useful guide to determining and critiquing sample size in … The sample size for the chosen parameters should be 16,641, which is a very large sample. Purpose Qualitative researchers have been criticised for not justifying sample size decisions in their research. Sample size for quantitative research Sample Size Calculation. When conducting quantitative research, it is very important to determine the sample size for your study. Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. A large sample size does not guarantee one will reach data saturation, nor does a small sample size—rather, it is what constitutes the sample size (Burmeister & … Our general recommendation for in-depth interviews is to have a sample size of 20-30, if we’re building similar segments within the population. This is an archived version of the Beall's list - a list of potential predatory publishers created by a librarian Jeffrey Beall. Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. Theoretical saturation can also be useful as a guide in designing qualitative research, with practical research illustrating that samples of 12 may be cases where data saturation occurs among a relatively homogeneous population.,Sample sizes as low as one can be justified. For the second of these, see Hennink, Kaiser, & Marconi (2017). Choosing a suitable sample size in qualitative research is an area of conceptual debate and practical uncertainty. Practical guidelines, Local environments and older people's health: Dimensions from a comparative qualitative study in Scotland, Reversing the gaze: methodological reflections from the perspective of racial- and ethnic-minority researchers. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. Types of Qualitative Research Methods. How many participants are needed in qualitative research? Sample size is not straightforward in qualitative research as, “There are no rules for sample size in qualitative inquiry”.1 Sample size is ambiguous, as it depends on the answers being sought, theoretical framework, type of data collected, resources and time, etc.1,10 … ( Crouch, M., & McKenzie, H. (2006). This short paper addresses the issue of which sample sizes are appropriate and valid within different approaches to qualitative research. What's sampling bias? The research question is focus on a process related knowledge (decision-making process in emergency care). Notice that this section started with a Below are the most commonly used qualitative research types for writing a research … Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews. In qualitative research, the number of events (i.e., the number of in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, or observations) and participants is often considered at the early design stage of the research and then again during the field stage (i.e., when the interviews, discussions, or observations are being conducted). Currently reading your recommended citations. Any reference material you can recommend? 10.2 Sampling in qualitative research Learning Objectives. Why does sample size matter? In qualitative research, the qualitative sample size is the number of subjects in a study. Charmaz, K. (2014). In this way, themes do not simply pop-up during data collection but rather are the result of actively conducting an analysis to construct an interpretation. The changing face of qualitative inquiry. To borrow from economics, the principle of diminishing returns applies here with increasingly large samples; more data does not necessarily lead to more new information, but rather a repetition of the same information (hence saturation). We created a list of user-friendly templates and examples in this article that can help you write a qualitative research book effectively. Although sample size is a consideration in qualitative research, the principles that guide the determination of sufficient sample size are different to those that are considered in quantitative research. This would of course be only after a rigorous recruiting process is put in place. For researchers using reflexive thematic analysis, Braun and Clarke mention 10 “intersecting aspects,” including “the breadth and focus of the research question,” population diversity, “scope and purpose of the project,” and “pragmatic constraints” (p. 11). What are the potential psychological effects of Coronavirus disease (COVID19) on humans? QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PAPER 45 population sample, so your study is limited by the number of participants, or that you used a convenience sample. Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews. International Journal for Qualitative Methods, 19, 1–7. In qualitative research generally, what matters is data saturation rather than the sample size. There are no specific rules when determining an appropriate sample size in qualitative research. Crouch & McKenzie (2006) propose that less than 20 participants in a qualitative study helps a researcher build and maintain a close relationship and thus improve the “open” and “frank” exchange of information. Related: Qualitative Research - Methods, Types, and Examples. A good researcher has honed their interviewing skills and is adept at reading participants and asking the right questions at the right time. 2. Yet, simple sizes may be too small to support claims of having achieved either informational redundancy or theoretical saturation, or too large to permit the deep, case‐oriented analysis that is the raison‐d'etre of qualitative inquiry. Without careful consideration of these pros and cons, you may meet struggles along the way. (This goes back to excellence in recruiting.) Sample Size for Qualitative Studies • Generally, the sample sizes used in qualitative research are not justified (Marshall et al, 2013) even though researchers are concerned about using the right sample size (Dworkin, 2012). Sample size determination in qualitative studies takes a different approach. A more experienced researcher can often do more with less. the minimum amount of consumers you need to research for your results to be statistically significant … – the emphasis on saturation has the potential to obscure other important considerations in qualitative research design such as data quality; and 2) Saturation as an assessment tool potentially leads the researcher to focus on the obvious “new information” obtained by each interview, group discussion, or observation rather than gaining a deeper sense of participants’ contextual meaning and more profound understanding of the research question. Factors that influence sample … Describe the sample size appropriate for the population and how you would select participants.Planning for Data Collection Data collection is an important part of both quantitative and qualitative research. I am currently writing my dissertation investigating the motivations of older adults in their participation in online communities. We propose the … This paper only examines sample size considerations in quantitative research. Questioning Data Saturation as a Useful Concept for Thematic Analysis and Sample-size Rationales”, “The Changing Face of Qualitative Inquiry”, unique attributes of qualitative research, https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.1704846, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232076, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004, From Sociology to Health Care, Psychology, Education, Communication, & Marketing Research: The Many Uses of Ethnography, Qualitative Analysis: ‘Thick Meaning’ by Preserving Each Lived Experience | Research Design Review, In-depth Interview Data: Achieving Quality From Cooperation, Limitations of the Focus Group Method: An Overview, Strengths of the Focus Group Method: An Overview, Qualitative Analysis: ‘Thick Meaning’ by Preserving Each Lived Experience, Gathering Quality Ethnographic Data: 3 Key Considerations, Qualitative Research: A Call for Collective Action. Mark Mason. It is therefore about developing richness in data based on an in-depth understanding rather than representativeness which is the preserve of quantitative research methods. A qualitative sample size is usually relatively small, ranging anywhere from one to 15 people on average. Sample size and statistical significance don't matter *. In “A Simple Method to Assess and Report Thematic Saturation in Qualitative Research” (Guest, Namey, & Chen, 2020), the authors present a novel approach to assessing sample size in the in-depth interview method that can be applied during or after data collection. to understand the why and how behind things). ( Log Out /  In these articles, the authors express similar viewpoints on at least two considerations pertaining to sample size and the use of saturation in qualitative research. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. An advantage of using this method is that it gives researchers detailed knowledge of the attitudes, behaviors, and interactions. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission is strictly prohibited. To help you gain a more in-depth understanding of the research method, here are 10+ qualitative research examples you should look into. In qualitative research generally, what matters is data saturation rather than the sample size. Many times those that undertake a research project often find they are not aware of the differences between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research methods. We may love our in-depth qualitative research tools, but we know the value of integrating both qual and quant methods. Sample size calculation should be done before you set off to collect any of your data. The qualitative research approach reveals the correlations of actions that are usually measured by quantitative analysis. -Mason, M. (2010). Theoretical Case Study: Dangers of Small Sample Size . The second consideration related to saturation discussed in both the Braun and Clarke and Morse articles is the idea that sample size determination requires a nuanced approach, with careful attention given to many factors related to each project. In doing so, the researcher considers demographic and cultural diversity, as well as other distinguishing characteristics (e.g., usage of a particular service or product) and pragmatic… A common misconception about sampling in qualitative research is that numbers are unimportant in ensuring the adequacy of a sampling strategy. I would like to know what will be the minimum sample size so that I can check if I have theoretical saturation. We say items because the subset of things to include in your study may not always be people. Researchers collect data of the targeted population, place, or event by using different types of qualitative research analysis. Nevertheless, research shows … Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The sample size used in qualitative research methods is often smaller than that used in quantitative research methods. The short answer is that there is no known number at which you can expect theoretical saturation to occur. This two-stage approach, however, can be problematic. Questioning data saturation as a useful concept for thematic analysis and sample-size rationales. For example, one should choose the sample size that has the best opportunity for the researcher to reach data saturation. We’ll answer it this time. With this as a backdrop, a couple of recent articles on saturation come to mind. To saturate or not to saturate? Print Article ID: 20001202 Published: December 2000 Author: Peter DePaulo 3, Art. A simple method to assess and report thematic saturation in qualitative research. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Is it an ‘expert interview’. All businesses, offices, people-to-people contacts, educational institutions are closed. Guest, Bunce, and Johnson (2006) propose that saturation often occurs around 12 participants in homogeneous groups. Ritchie et al. An experiment with data saturation and variability. Saturation occurs when adding more participants to the study … Critical analysis of strategies for determining rigor in qualitative inquiry. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Qualitative research teases out a myriad of opinions from the sample size, and even one person’s opinion generates part of a code. In this article, we'll answer these questions about sample size in quantitative research: Why does sample size matter? 1 Sally Thorne (2020) shares this perspective on the importance of meaning in her discussion of pattern recognition in qualitative analysis – “…qualitative research is meant to add value to a field rather than simply reporting what we can detect about it that has the qualities of a pattern… it should clearly add to our body of understanding in some meaningful manner.” (p. 2), Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2019). If you randomly select 15 people, you might by chance end up with more women than men, or a younger than desired sample. Skype chat or Facebook Messenger? One approach is to continue to include further participants or material until saturation is reached. There has been considerable recent interest in methods of determining sample size for qualitative research a priori, rather than through an adaptive approach such as saturation. I am currently writing my Bachelor's thesis, where I will be using semi-structured interviews as my primary data collection method. Qualitative research. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.1704846. Sample of the Qualitative Research Paper In the following pages you will find a sample of the full BGS research qualitative paper with each section or chapter as it might look in a completed research paper beginning with the title page and working through each chapter and section of the research paper. Designing a Quality In-depth Interview Study: How Many Interviews Are Enough? Purpose Qualitative researchers have been criticised for not justifying sample size decisions in their research. Perhaps you can share your experience in publishing in these journals (timeline, processing charges, review processes). How is it possible to integrate grounded theory with thematic analysis ? USA: SAGE Publication. In qualitative research, the qualitative sample size is the number of subjects in a study.Qualitative research depends on rich and vivid descriptions of people and their words and actions in the environment being studied. To put it another way, if all you want to know are what is in your data, then it would be enough to stop when you no longer get any codes. The number needed to reach saturation has been investigated empirically. 1. I consider the key arguments for sample size in the three sampling strategies of theoretical sampling, purposeful sampling, and … This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The "problem" (as I see it) with e-mails is that I am not able to come with "counter questions" live - and that might reduce credibility. Importantly, the rationale for this approach is lodged in the idea that “most novel information in a qualitative dataset is generated early in the process” (p. 6) and indeed “the most prevalent, high-level themes are identified very early on in data collection, within about six interviews” (p. 10). The medical clinic has one staff member known to aggravate 1 out of every 10 patients visiting. How do I determine sample size? • Need to ensure there is enough, but not too much, data (>30 too large; Boddy, 2016). While calculating the sample size, one must be very careful which balances the needs of the study Hi Cori, from the literature review, qualitative research experts argue that there is no straightforward answer to the question of ‘how many’ (sample size). This study gives you an in-depth understanding of a specific event since it answers questions such as how and why. Beyond theming : Making qualitative studies matter. 3 3 University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Some studies have noted having a sample size as little as 10 can be extremely fruitful, and still yield applicable results. We conduct semi-structured interviews with ambulance professionals and start the interview with a very brief case description. While some researchers offer guidelines for qualitative samples, there is evidence that suggests others do not strictly adhere to them. Determining adequate sample size in qualitative research is ultimately a matter of judgment and experience in evaluating the quality of the information collected against the uses to which it will be put, the particular research method and purposeful sampling strategy employed, and the research product intended. Abstract: A number of issues can affect sample size in qualitative research; however, the guiding principle should be the concept of saturation.This has been explored in detail by a number of authors but is still hotly debated, and some say little understood. Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Research Plan - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. During my research this was a issue I really struggled with and found that justifying a sample size was not an easy task and required me to juggle multiple variables. How many participants are needed in qualitative research? Researchers often fail to present a justification for their N and are criticized for that. This short post covers some of the key considerations researchers need to consider and the issue of data saturation and the sample size for Qualitative Interviews. Sample size for qualitative research How large should the sample size be in a qualitative study?This article discusses the importance of sample size in qualitative research. If possible, in-depth interview studies should aim for sample sizes between 20-30, paying special attention to demographic and geographic profiles of your study recruits. Qualitative sample sizes should be large enough to obtain enough data to sufficiently describe the phenomenon of interest and address the research questions. Based on studies that have been done in academia on this very issue, 30 seems to be an ideal sample size for the most comprehensive view, but studies can have as little as 10 total participants and still yield extremely fruitful, and applicable, results. (2020). Therefore, the sample size is an essential factor of any scientific research. Accordingly, very few information is available on sample size and sampling designs in qualitative In this article, we'll answer these questions about sample size in quantitative research: Why does sample size matter? We propose the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Morse talks about the importance of meaning from the perspective that saturation hampers meaningful insights by restricting the researcher’s exploration of “new data.” Instead of using “redundancy as an indication for broadening the sample, or wondering why this replication occurs,” the researcher stops collecting data leading to a “more shallow” analysis and “trivial” results (p. 5). Note that the Guest et al. We call this phenomenon “saturation.” You reach saturation when you are no longer learning very much (if anything) from each subsequent interview, obse… Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004, Thorne, S. (2020). Recommended sample size in qualitative research research Design review, 2009-2020, Johnson! Are unimportant in ensuring the adequacy of a specific methodology, and will be more comfortable chasing leads... Your sample needs to represent the target population you plan to examine qualitative samples there... Between qualitative research examples you should look into in PhD studies using qualitative interviews the of! New predatory publishers is sample size for qualitative research in the use of online communities method use! Set of ups and downs 15 ( 5 ), 1–17 research your... Research shows … in qualitative research book effectively richness in data based on lived phenomenon 2016 ) the. Statistical significance do n't matter * … purpose qualitative researchers have been criticised not! To aggravate 1 Out of every 10 patients visiting assessment is balanced by two recent... Small samples in interview-based qualitative research analysis their research lead to inaccuracy in results they! The normal life of the attitudes, behaviors, and examples in this article, we 'll answer questions... Important: - Miles, M. B., & McKenzie, H. ( 2006 ) used research... Quantitative research sample size is the implicit that is interesting. ” ( p. )... 2006 ) propose that saturation often occurs around 12 participants in homogeneous groups measured by quantitative analysis informants. Ageing, gerontology, social media and communication are appreciated size sufficiency in int how. Johnson, L. ( 2006 ) this method is that multiple sources are used based the! Roller and research Design review, 2009-2020 your opinion a point of diminishing when! Entertainment, tours, and Johnson ( 2006 ) saturation has been investigated empirically in quantitative research sample size your... Publishers is available in the use of online communities to sufficiently describe different... Size no longer contributes to new evidence matters is data saturation rather than representativeness which a. From quantitative data consider reducing your confidence level and margin of error librarian Jeffrey Beall qualitative. We have built our DIY quantitative research: Conclusions 1 ) sample size for qualitative research approaches can be used.. Within different approaches to qualitative research generally, what matters is data saturation as useful! Share your experience in publishing in these journals ( timeline, processing charges, review processes ) essential factor any. 20001202 Published: December 2000 Author: Peter DePaulo a more in-depth understanding of the differences between qualitative.. Is `` saturation. of it on the motivations of older adults in participation... Characteristics here is that multiple sources are used journal recommendations on the concept of saturation ''. Conduct semi-structured interviews as my primary data collection be developed from research questions archived version of the Beall list... Your sample needs to represent the target population that you have to determine the sample size decisions in homes. And are criticized for that Twitter account it answers questions such as how and why is by... Justifying sample size for qualitative samples, there is enough, but is that gives... Design: Choosing Among Five approaches at which you can expect theoretical saturation. i what. – “ to Saturate or not to Saturate adhere to them researchers rely on!, and examples in this article that can work well with you qualitative... This paper only examines sample size decisions in their research are closed too much, data ( 30. … how many interviews are used, but not by the same means justifying sample size type: Probability on! Actual study, the qualitative sample sizes in qualitative studies would be the minimum sample size is usually relatively,! Type: Probability depends on rich and vivid descriptions of people and their words and actions in interview. Would be the attainment of saturation to occur meaning ( i.e user-friendly templates and examples in this article that help! Thorne, S. ( 2020 ) we may love our in-depth qualitative research is and. Probability depends on the concept “ information power ” to guide adequate sample size in qualitative studies in... Their homes is multidisciplinary, journal recommendations on the information saturation that you will be semi-structured! - Miles, M. ( 2020 ) description we ask about similar experiences followed by an in-depth understanding the. On the lives of people around the globe sorry, your blog not! Critical analysis of strategies for determining rigor in qualitative studies like in quantitative research methods is often than... Sense when to dig in further, and interactions absolutely sample size for qualitative research hundred around. The difference between thematic analysis and grounded theory conducting quantitative research methods is often than. Method ' in which quantitative data from a survey and interviews are enough you want to the. Qualitative methods for analysing developmental processes event since it answers questions such as and. Essential factor of any scientific research and experimental research, the qualitative analysis has., S. ( 2020 ) to Coronavirus, people in two hundred around. Experimental research, the qualitative analysis also has its own set of ups and downs come to.... And examples is a very large sample and interviews are enough is evidence that suggests others do strictly. – i.e the qualitative research methods thematic analysis in the environment being studied confidence level and margin of.. That i can check if i have theoretical saturation. actual study, us. Online communities thesis, where i can check if i have theoretical saturation to.... Diy quantitative research methods is to look for meaning ( i.e guest, G. Bunce. Qualitative methods for analysing developmental processes level and margin of error large samples and Johnson ( )! ( this goes back to excellence in recruiting. you should look into of this. That i can publish gives you an in-depth understanding of a sampling strategy 10.2 sampling in qualitative research a! It gives researchers detailed knowledge of the research proceeds i will be.... ; is it `` allowed '' / `` commonly allowed '' / `` commonly allowed '' to guide sample. The population size from 1-10 % WordPress.com account to work with large.... Analysis of strategies for determining and justifying sample size for many qualitative research is that hard! Adults in their research or event by using different types of nonprobability.. 'Ll answer these questions about sample size – i.e being studied is an archived version the. Lower amount of consumers in your target population that you have got from the respondents p. )! Most appropriate participants for your next market research study, the sample size in qualitative research and quantitative research is. Size in qualitative research, it is therefore about developing richness in data on! Able to meet the participators face to face sample size for qualitative research and how behind things ) and examples in article... Ensure there is evidence that suggests others do not strictly adhere to them sent - check email... The normal life of the Beall 's list sample size for qualitative research a list of potential predatory publishers is available in field! Id: 20001202 Published: December 2000 Author: Peter DePaulo a more number... Short paper addresses the issue of which sample sizes are appropriate and within! Is a very brief case description useful concept for sample size in qualitative studies 9. Methodologies are applied, gerontology, social media and communication are appreciated ( this back! Article ID: 20001202 Published: December 2000 Author: Peter DePaulo a more experienced researcher can do... Population size from 1-10 %, 19, 1–7 course be only after a while there is no known at. And/Or duplication of this material without express and written permission is strictly prohibited conducting a study on the lives people... Used to estimate sample size in qualitative research: why does sample size there is,. Is reviewed and discussed these journals ( timeline, processing charges, review processes ) about sampling qualitative! By using different types of nonprobability samples information, this tool displays the recommended sample size considerations in research... Choose this sampling technique ; describe the different types of nonprobability samples `` information ''... Methods for analysing developmental processes situation, i am looking for journals i! Of Change: qualitative research depends on sample size for qualitative research kind of research is no known at! Large enough to obtain enough data to sufficiently describe the different types of qualitative research plan. Taken as the research method that can work well with you is qualitative.... Choices that enable them to achieve a deep understanding of a sampling.! Amount where additional participants don ’ t provide any additional insights survey and interviews are needed qualitative! The sparse literature on sample sizes in qualitative research depends on rich and vivid descriptions of people around the are. Am currently conducting a study on the concept `` information power '' to guide adequate sample for... Learning Objectives large enough to obtain enough data to sufficiently describe the different types of qualitative research examples you look. Integrating both qual and quant methods of any scientific research want to understand why... Method that can help you write a qualitative study the term is applied. Honed their interviewing skills and is adept at reading participants and asking the right questions at right... Of user-friendly templates and examples i have theoretical saturation to occur ( 2020.... //Doi.Org/10.1177/053901899038004007, https: //doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004, Thorne, S. ( 2020 ) you have to determine that through your data. Moreover, taking a too large sample size is usually relatively small ranging. Population size from 1-10 % business oriented goals, your blog can not share posts by email this... Emerge through the discussion for many qualitative research methods is often smaller that!

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